MONTESSORI TO MATIC & ‘O’ LEVEL “44th YEAR OF ACADEMIC EXECELLENCE”

Lower secondary level is the most comprehensive and unique school qualification; thus preparing students for their O LEVEL examination. Grade 6, 7 and 8 focus on strong academic foundation at such important years through developing an aptitude towards inquiry and concept base learning at each school level.

CURRICULUM OVERVIEW

English

English has a high priority on our timetable with more time given to it than any other subject and standards in all areas of English are high. We work hard to ensure all children develop excellent literacy skills as they are the key to children succeeding in so many other areas of the curriculum. Students read assigned literature selections throughout the year, which are discussed in literature discussion group twice per week. Practice with written response in the form of short answer, reflection and formal essay, is an important component of our literature curriculum.

Reading

Pupils should:

  • Recognize explicit meaning; select, collate and summarize facts and ideas, using their own words where appropriate to demonstrate understanding.
  • Recognize implicit meaning and writers’ opinions, select and explain material from a reading passage.
  • Demonstrate understanding of features of narrative and non-narrative texts and poems by explaining and developing them in their own discussion and writing.
  • Understand vocabulary and comment on a writer’s use of language.
  • Read an increasingly wide range of prose, poetry and drama and begin to understand the main features, including the structure, of each genre.
  • Learn the terms ‘biography’ and ‘autobiography’ and read examples from books and from the internet.
  • Demonstrate understanding of features of diaries.
  • Read magazines and newspapers and study the format of a newspaper report.
  • Understand vocabulary and comment on a writer’s use of language, such as informal or formal style, or the choice of words to create character.
  • Recognize implied meaning, such as the expression of opinion, the inference of character, the meaning contained in an image, or ironic effect.
  • Comment on features of narrative writing, such as character, setting, theme, relationships and the way in which a plot is put together.
  • Demonstrate understanding of the features of non-fiction and media texts, such as travel writing and advertising material.
  • Comment on the meanings and features of poems and explain the effectiveness of then writers’ use of words.
  • Read to detect main ideas and supporting detail.
  • Identify fact, opinion, and bias.
  • Recognize and comment on the attitudes of a writer.
  • Understand the differences between formal and informal style.
  • Recognize ways in which writers use different registers and other methods to communicate with their audience.
  • Understand how words are used for different purposes, such as to create atmosphereor to persuade the reader.

Writing

Pupils should:

  • Write to inform, explain and describe.
  • Write to imagine and entertain.
  • Write to argue and persuade.
  • Write to comment.
  • Provide characters and settings for their stories and descriptions.
  • Practice note-taking.
  • Structure their writing, using paragraphs and sequencing events, details and ideas within paragraphs.
  • Develop their ability to structure writing in ways appropriate to genre, using paragraphs and sequencing their ideas.
  • Write in a range of forms for a variety of purposes, including:
  • Write a part of their autobiography, for example to entertain, inform, review or comment.
  • Write diary entries, for example to inform, explain, review, comment or explore.
  • Write leaflets or newspaper reports, for example to inform.
  • Write letters, for example to persuade, entertain, narrate or comment.
  • Write magazine articles, for example to describe, review or comment.
  • Write reports, for example to review, inform, advise, or argue.
  • Write reviews, for example to inform, entertain or advise.
  • Write summaries.
  • Pupils should, in addition to the Curriculum Frameworks for Years 7 and 8:
  • Begin to develop registers and a personal voice.
  • Demonstrate a sense of audience and engage the reader’s attention.
  • Learn to use structures appropriate to genre and understand the need to link paragraphs.
  • Write persuasively, for example in letters and the script of a commercial.
  • Add detail, tension and climax to their narratives.
  • Understand the difference between a narrative and a description.
  • Write an argument without repetition, but with a sense of linked progression.
  • Write to analyze, review and comment.
  • Draft and re-draft their writing by revision, editing and correction.

Usage

Phonics, Spelling and Vocabulary

Pupils should:

  • Learn a range of vocabulary appropriate to their needs, and use words in speech and writing to clarify meaning and to interest their audience.
  • Spell correctly most of the words they use.
  • Learn to use the terms image, simile, metaphor, onomatopoeia, setting and genre.
  • Use a dictionary and thesaurus effectively to further develop vocabulary.
  • Learn an increasingly wide range of vocabulary appropriate to their needs.
  • Learn the spelling of different and commonly miss pelt words and develop strategies for correcting their own spelling.
  • Continue to extend their range of language and to use it appropriately.
  • Continue to study personal spelling errors and to correct them.

Grammar and Punctuation

Pupils should:

  • Use full stops, capital letters, commas, apostrophes and question marks to make meaning clear.
  • Learn and use a wider range of punctuation, including to present dialogue.
  • Learn the parts of speech and use them to make their writing more effective.
  • Use correct grammar, including articles, case, word order and simple tenses.
  • Use a range of increasingly complex sentence structures to communicate meaning and to give fluency to their speech and writing.
  • Aim for security in their use of full stops to separate sentences.
  • Begin to understand the correct use of commas in various situations.
  • Learn a wide range of punctuation to define shades of meaning.
  • Learn direct and indirect speech and begin to understand the sequence of tenses.
  • Continue to understand errors of punctuation in their own writing.
  • Revise common and less usual punctuation.
  • Continue to practice varied sentence structures and lengths for effect.
  • Ensure that they understand the conventions for punctuating dialogue in narrative.
  • Understand and use the full range of tenses and sequence them correctly.

Speaking and Listening

Pupils should:

  • Speak for a variety of purposes, such as to explain, describe, narrate, explore, analyze, imagine, discuss, argue and persuade.
  • Work in solo, paired and group assignments, including role-play.
  • Participate in speaking and listening activities in order to discuss and prepare assignments.
  • Begin to make significant contributions to group discussions and help to plan and to give group presentations.
  • Develop the ability to listen courteously to others and to be sensitive to turn taking.
  • Use a range of vocabulary appropriate to their needs, and use language to clarify meaning and to interest and convince their audience.
  • Practice speaking fluently at an appropriate pace.
  • Practice speaking clearly at an appropriate volume.
  • Develop skills in solo, paired and group assignments, including role-play and drama.
  • Read aloud and comment on what is read.
  • Give short presentations and answer questions.
  • Conduct a discussion or organize a role-play.
  • Report the main features of a group activity to the class.
  • Help to plan and take part in a brief dramatic scene.
  • Use role-play to express feelings and ideas.
  • Work in groups to formulate ideas and plans of action.
  • Discuss the features of media productions such as news broadcasts, interviews and discussions.
  • Take part in a simple debate.
  • Use speaking and listening as a method of preparing for written assignments.
  • Use speaking and listening to give themselves increasing personal confidence.
  • Make increasingly significant contributions both as solo speakers and as members of groups.
  • Work in groups for a variety of purposes, such as taking decisions and planning and organization

SOCIAL STUDIES – PROJECT WORK

Traditional subjects such as History and Geography are taught through Project Work. This work is studied in depth over an extended period of time. There are no clear boundaries between one area of knowledge and another, and we try to use topics to make learning relevant. We aim for a balance of subject areas in those topics, which can be very exciting and highly motivating for children.

MATHEMATICS

Mathematics constitutes a vital area of the curriculum and a basic knowledge of math and an understanding of the concepts involved, is essential for everyday life. In the early years of school particularly, an emphasis is placed on practical work using a wide variety of Montessori Math apparatus, while older children do still need to learn multiplication tables and work in the four rules of number as well as learning about and exploring measurement, shape, geometry and graph work. A variety of resource books along with course books are studied in depth by providing ample practice and experiences including opportunities for investigation work and problem solving. The central goals of mathematics program are to introduce the students to the power of mathematics abstraction and provide opportunities for them to develop their skills in solving real world problems through the creation and use of mathematical models. In all cases, however, mathematical abstractions will follow concrete experiences.

Curriculum Framework

Number Properties

  • Understand decimal notation and place value
  • Multiply and divide integers and decimals by 10,100 and 1000
  • Multiply and divide three digit by two digit whole numbers.
  • Know and use the order of operations, including brackets, with simple calculations.
  • Use fraction notation to describe parts of shapes and to express a smaller whole number as a fraction of a larger one
  • Simplify fractions by cancellation and identify equivalent fractions
  • Convert terminating decimals to fractions
  • Know that a recurring decimal is a fraction
  • Use division to convert a fraction to a decimal
  • Add and subtract fractions with common denominators
  • Calculate fractions of quantities (whole number answers) and multiply a fraction by an integer
  • Recognise the equivalence of percentages, fractions and decimals
  • Recognise and use multiples, factors, common factors, highest common factor, lowest common multiple, primes and use simple tests of divisibility
  • Recognise triangular numbers, squares and the corresponding square roots
  • Know and use the symbols =, ≠, < , >
  • Order fractions, decimals and percentages by magnitude
  • Use efficient methods to add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions
  • Write a fraction in its simplest form by cancelling common factors.
  • Write numbers in standard form
  • Understand decimal notation and place value
  • Multiply and divide integers and decimals by 10,100 and 1000
  • Multiply and divide three digit by two digit whole numbers.
  • Know and use the order of operations, including brackets, with simple calculations.
  • Use fraction notation to describe parts of shapes and to express a smaller whole number as a fraction of a larger one
  • Simplify fractions by cancellation and identify equivalent fractions
  • Convert terminating decimals to fractions
  • Know that a recurring decimal is a fraction
  • Use division to convert a fraction to a decimal
  • Add and subtract fractions with common denominators
  • Calculate fractions of quantities (whole number answers) and multiply a fraction by an integer
  • Recognize the equivalence of percentages, fractions and decimals
  • Recognize and use multiples, factors, common factors, highest common factor, lowest common multiple, primes and use simple tests of divisibility
  • Recognize triangular numbers, squares and the corresponding square roots
  • Know and use the symbols =, ≠, <, >
  • Order fractions, decimals and percentages by magnitude

Problem Solving

  • Understand, use and calculate simple percentages
  • Use percentages to compare simple proportions
  • Express one quantity as a percentage of another
  • Calculate percentage increase and decrease
  • Understand and use negative numbers
  • Order, add, subtract, multiply and divide positive and negative integers in context
  • Understand the relationship between ratio and proportion
  • Use ratio notation
  • Reduce a ratio to its simplest form and divide a quantity in a given ratio
  • Solve simple problems involving ratio and proportion in context
  • Round large positive whole numbers to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000 and decimals to the nearest whole number or 1 decimal place
  • Use a calculator to (a) multiply and divide whole numbers (up to 3-digits). (b) carry out calculations involving brackets, the memory, the square root and
  • Sign Change Keys

    • Interpret a calculator display in different contexts
    • Understand and solve problems involving proportionality
    • Compare two ratios
    • Interpret and use ratio in a range of contexts
    • Round numbers to a specified number of decimal places or significant figures
    • Understand upper and lower bounds
    • Use an electronic calculator efficiently and appropriately to perform complex calculations with numbers of any size, including numbers expressed in standard form
    • Know not to round during intermediate steps of a calculation; use the sign change and π keys
    • Without using a calculator estimate calculations by rounding numbers to 1 significant figure and multiplying or dividing mentally
    • Understand, use and calculate simple percentages
    • Use percentages to compare simple proportions
    • Express one quantity as a percentage of another
    • Calculate percentage increase and decrease
    • Understand and use negative numbers
    • Order, add, subtract, multiply and divide positive and negative integers in context
    • Understand the relationship between ratio and proportion
    • Use ratio notation
    • Reduce a ratio to its simplest form and divide a quantity in a given ratio
    • Solve simple problems involving ratio and proportion in context
    • Ns4 Round large positive whole numbers to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000 and decimals to
    • the nearest whole number or 1 decimal place
    • Use a calculator to (a) multiply and divide whole numbers (up to 3-digits). (b) carry out calculations involving brackets, the memory, the square root and sign change keys
    • Interpret a calculator display in different contexts
    • Without using a calculator (a) add and subtract whole numbers and decimals (up to two places) (b) multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals (up to two places) by single digit whole numbers
    • Recall number facts, including multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and derive associated
    • division facts
    • Use mental methods of calculation with simple decimals, fractions and percentages
    • Check results mentally by considering the order of magnitude

    Data Handling

    • Collect and organize data
    • Design a data collection sheet or questionnaire to use in a simple survey
    • Construct frequency tables for discrete data, grouped where appropriate in equal class intervals
    • Construct and interpret bar-line graphs, pictograms and frequency diagrams for grouped discrete data
    • Draw conclusions based on the shape of graphs
    • Compare two simple distributions using the range and one of the mode, median or mean
    • Find the mode (or modal class for grouped data), median and range
    • Calculate the mean, including from a simple frequency table
    • Understand and use the probability scale from 0 to 1
    • Find probabilities based on equally likely outcomes in simple contexts
    • Use experimental data to estimate probabilities
    • Compare experimental and theoretical probabilities in simple contexts
    • Collect and tabulate discrete and continuous data, choosing suitable class intervals where appropriate
    • Select, construct and modify suitable graphical representation of data, including frequency polygons and cumulative frequency diagrams
    • Examine critically the results of a statistical enquiry and draw conclusions
    • Find the median and quartiles
    • Estimate the mean, median and inter quartile range of a set of grouped data
    • Know that the sum of probabilities of all mutually exclusive outcomes is 1 and use this when solving problems
    • Understand relative frequency as an estimate of probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments in a range of contexts.
    • Collect and organize data
    • Design a data collection sheet or questionnaire to use in a simple survey
    • Construct frequency tables for discrete data, grouped where appropriate in equal
    • class intervals
    • Without using a calculator (a) add and subtract whole numbers and decimals (up to two places) (b) multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals (up to two places) by single digit whole numbers
    • Recall number facts, including multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and derive associated division facts
    • Use mental methods of calculation with simple decimals, fractions and percentages
    • Check results mentally by considering the order of magnitude
    • Construct and interpret bar-line graphs, pictograms and frequency diagrams for
    • grouped discrete data
    • Draw conclusions based on the shape of graphs
    • Compare two simple distributions using the range and one of the mode, median or mean
    • Find the mode (or modal class for grouped data), median and range
    • Calculate the mean, including from a simple frequency table
    • Understand and use the probability scale from 0 to 1
    • Find probabilities based on equally likely outcomes in simple contexts
    • Use experimental data to estimate probabilities
    • Compare experimental and theoretical probabilities in simple contexts

    Algebra Manipulation

    • Use letters to represent unknowns or variables
    • Simplify linear algebraic expressions by collecting like terms
    • Evaluate simple formulae
    • Know the meaning of the words term, expression and equation
    • Construct and solve simple linear equations with integer coefficients
    • Simplify, factorise or transform algebraic expressions
    • Add simple algebraic fractions
    • Solve a simple pair of simultaneous equations algebraically (or graphically)
    • Construct and solve linear inequalities in one variable
    • Represent the solution set on a number line
    • Expand the product of two simple linear expressions and simplify the corresponding quadratic expression
    • Use positive index notation for integer powers
    • Apply the index laws for multiplication and division to simple expressions.
    • Use letters to represent unknowns or variables
    • Simplify linear algebraic expressions by collecting like terms
    • Evaluate simple formulae
    • Know the meaning of the words term, expression and equation
    • Construct and solve simple linear equations with integer coefficients

    Graphs

    • Plot graphs of simple linear functions
    • Generate co-ordinate pairs that satisfy a simple linear equation
    • Recognize the equation of lines parallel to the x-axis or the y-axis
    • Draw and interpret the graphs of simple linear functions arising from practical situations
    • Ag3 Understand and use 2-D Cartesian co-ordinates in all four quadrants
    • Ag5 Generate and describe simple integer sequences
    • Find simple term-to-term rules
    • Plot graphs of simple linear functions
    • Generate co-ordinate pairs that satisfy a simple linear equation
    • Recognize the equation of lines parallel to the x-axis or the y-axis
    • Draw and interpret the graphs of simple linear functions arising from practical

    Situations

    • Understand and use 2-D Cartesian co-ordinates in all four quadrants
    • Generate and describe simple integer sequences
    • Find simple term-to-term rules
    • Draw and interpret the graphs of simple quadratic and cubic functions
    • Solve simple quadratic equations by factorization

    Space Measure

    • Convert from one metric unit to another
    • Read and interpret scales on measuring instruments
    • Understand and use the 12-hour and 24-hour clock systems
    • Use and interpret timetables
    • Know and use the formula for the area of a rectangle
    • Calculate the perimeter and area of compound shapes made from rectangles and
    • triangles
    • Deduce and use the formula for the area of a triangle, parallelogram and trapezium
    • Convert from one metric unit to another
    • Read and interpret scales on measuring instruments
    • Understand and use the 12-hour and 24-hour clock systems
    • Use and interpret timetables
    • Know and use the formula for the area of a rectangle
    • Calculate the perimeter and area of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles
    • Deduce and use the formula for the area of a triangle, parallelogram and trapezium
    • Understand and use measures of speed (and other compound measures such as
    • density or pressure) to solve problems
    • Solve problems involving constant or average rates of change
    • Understand and apply the formula for the volume of a sphere in a variety of contexts

    Geometry

    Use a ruler and protractor to:

    • Measure and draw lines to the nearest millimeter and angles to the nearest degree, construct a triangle given two sides and the included angle or two angles and the included side
    • Understand and use the language and notation associated with:
    • o reflections, translations and rotations enlargement
    • Recognize the transformations:- reflection in a given line, translation, rotation about a given point
    • Enlarge 2-D shapes, given a centre of enlargement and a positive whole number scale factor
    • Use and interpret bearings
    • Find the locus of a point that moves according to given rules

    Trigonometry

    • Understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem Use sine, cosine and tangent ratios in right-angled triangles to solve problems in 2-D

    SCIENCE

    We aim to provide a wide variety of experience for exploration, observation and problem solving work, which often develops from the children’s own natural curiosity. Their skills and concepts of science are developed through experiences of observing and recording of a variety of living and non-living material. Students of Senior School are exposed to Laboratory work under the guidance of Science teachers and are encouraged to investigate and record their observations. Group work is encouraged to enable the students to become confident and independent in their own research and conclusions Students display their innovative models in front of the school children and also present their logical views. Independent work is highly appreciated and encouraged so as to make our students curious and innovative.

    Curriculum Framework:

    Scientific Enquiry Students should be able to:

    • Suggest ideas that may be tested.
    • Outline plans to carry out suitable investigations, including a fair test.
    • Make predictions using previous knowledge.
    • Identify things to be measured, choose appropriate apparatus and use it correctly.
    • Make careful observations.
    • Present data in the form of tables, bar charts and/or line graphs.
    • Use information from secondary sources.
    • Make conclusions from collected data.
    • Recognise results and observations that do not fit into a pattern.
    • Select ideas that can be tested.
    • Plan investigations to test these ideas.
    • Make predictions using scientific knowledge.
    • Identify important variables and choose which variables to vary.
    • Take accurate measurements.
    • Present results as appropriate graphs.
    • Make simple calculations.
    • Identify trends and patterns in results.
    • Compare results with predictions.
    • Identify anomalous results and suggest improvements to investigations.
    • Interpret qualitative data from secondary sources.
    • Choose ideas and produce plans for testing based on previous knowledge and research.
    • Use preliminary work to decide how to carry out an investigation.
    • Decide which measurements and observations are necessary.
    • Decide which apparatus to use and assess any hazards.
    • Use appropriate sampling techniques where required.
    • Choose the best way to present results.
    • Describe patterns seen in results.
    • Interpret results using scientific knowledge and understanding.
    • Evaluate the methods used and use this to refine methods for further investigations.
    • Compare methods and results used by others.
    • Look critically at sources of secondary data.

    Biology

    Students should be able to:

    Plants

    • Recognise the positions and know the functions of the major organs of flowering plants.
    • Recognise the parts of a flower and relate these to their function
    • Describe the absorption and transport of water and mineral salts in flowering plants.
    • Explain the process of photosynthesis.
    • Use the word equation for photosynthesis.
    • Understand the importance of water and mineral salts to plant growth.
    • Understand sexual reproduction in flowering plants including pollination, fertilisation, seed formation and dispersal.

    Humans as Organisms

    • Identify the constituents of a balanced diet and the functions of various nutrients.
    • Understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies.
    • Recognise the organs of the alimentary canal and know their functions.
    • Understand the function of enzymes as biological catalysts.
    • Recognise the basic components of the circulatory system and know their functions.
    • Understand the relationship between diet and fitness.
    • Describe disorders of the circulatory system and relate these to diet.
    • Recognise the basic components of the respiratory system and know their functions.
    • Explain gaseous exchange.
    • Describe the effects of smoking.
    • Define and describe respiration including the use of a word equation.
    • Explain ways in which living things are adapted to their habitats.
    • Explain food chains, food webs and energy flow.
    • Explain the role of decomposers.
    • Describe factors affecting the size of populations.
    • Describe some effects of human influences on the environment.
    • Recognise the positions and know the functions of the major organ systems of the human body.

    Cells and Organisms

    • Identify the seven characteristics of living things and relate these to a wide range of organisms.
    • Identify the structures present in plant and animal cells as seen with a simple light microscope.
    • Compare the structure of plant and animal cells.
    • Relate the structure of some common cells to their functions.
    • Understand that cells can be grouped together to form tissues, organs and organisms.

    Variation and Classification

    • Understand what is meant by a species.
    • Investigate variation within a species.
    • Classify animals and plants into major groups.
    • Understand that organisms inherit characteristics from their parents through genetic material that is carried in cell nuclei.
    • Use keys to identify plants and animals.
    • Describe how selective breeding can lead to new varieties.

    Ecosystems

    • Describe how organisms are adapted to their habitat.
    • Draw simple food chains.

    Chemistry

    Students should be able to:

    • Use indicators to distinguish acid and alkaline solutions.
    • Use a pH scale.
    • Understand neutralization and some of its applications.
    • Use a word equation to describe a common reaction.
    • Describe chemical reactions which are not useful e.g. rusting.
    • Explain the idea of endothermic and exothermic reactions.
    • Describe the reactivity of metals with oxygen, water and dilute acids.
    • Understand the reactivity series.
    • Give examples of displacement reactions.
    • Explain how to prepare some common salts by the reactions of metals and metal carbonates and be able to write word equations for these reactions.
    • Give a qualitative explanation of the effects of concentration, particle size, temperature and catalysts on the rate of a reaction.

    Periodic Table

    • Describe the structure of an atom.
    • Compare the structures of the first twenty elements of the Periodic Table.
    • Describe trends in groups and periods.

    States of Matter and Physical Change

    • Distinguish between solids, liquids and gases and identify changes of state.
    • Use simple kinetic theory to explain changes of state, dissolving and diffusion.
    • Describe a variety of ways of obtaining pure substances from mixtures.
    • Recognise a mixture and a solution.
    • Recognise burning as a non-reversible, exothermic reaction.
    • Distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

    Materials

    • Distinguish between metals and non-metals.
    • Describe everyday materials and their physical properties.
    • Give chemical symbols for the first twenty elements of the Periodic Table.
    • Understand that elements are made of atoms.
    • Explain the idea of compounds.
    • Name some common compounds including oxides, hydroxides, chlorides, sulphates and carbonates.
    • Distinguish between elements, compounds and mixtures.
    • Describe and explain the differences between metals and non-metals.

    Physics

    Students should be able to:

    Measurement and Properties of Matter

    • Choose the appropriate apparatus for measurement.
    • Use apparatus carefully and accurately.
    • Record measurements using the correct units.
    • Recognise the way that particles are arranged and move in solids, liquids and gases.
    • Explain the expansion of solids, liquids and gases.

    Forces and Motion

    • Describe the effect of forces on the motion and shape of objects.

    Energy

    • Name the major sources of energy including fuels.
    • Describe alternative energy sources including solar and wind.
    • Recognise various forms of energy and understand simple energy changes.
    • Use knowledge of energy sources including fossil fuels and renewable energy resources to consider the world’s energy needs.
    • Identify and explain the thermal (heat) energy transfer processes of conduction, convection and radiation.

    Electricity

    • Distinguish between conductors and insulators.
    • Set up simple circuits and draw circuit diagrams.
    • Recognize the effects of circuit components such as cells, lamps and resistors.
    • Describe electrostatics and the concept of charge.
    • Interpret and draw simple parallel circuits.
    • Explain how common types of components, including cells, affect current.
    • Explain how current divides in parallel circuits.
    • Measure current.
    • Use ammeters and voltmeters.
    • Magnetism

      • Describe the properties of magnets.
      • Recognise and reproduce the magnetic field pattern of a bar magnet.
      • Construct and use an electromagnet.

      Light

      • Use rectilinear propagation of light to explain the formation of shadows and other phenomena.
      • Describe how non-luminous objects are seen.
      • Describe reflection at a plane surface and use the law of reflection.
      • Investigate refraction at the boundary between air and glass or air and water.
      • Explain the dispersion of white light.
      • Explain colour addition and subtraction, and the absorption and reflection of coloured light.

      Sound

      • Explain the properties of sound in terms of movement of air particles.
      • Recognise the link between loudness and amplitude, pitch and frequency
      • .

      Forces and Motion

      • Calculate average speeds
      • Interpret simple distance/time graphs.
      • Describe the effects of forces on motion.
      • Describe the effect of gravity on objects.
      • Explain that pressure is caused by the action of a force on an area.
      • Determine densities of solids, liquids and gases.
      • Explain pressures in gases and liquids (qualitative only).

      RELIGIOUS EDUCATION

      The ultimate aim of the Institution is to produce true Muslims and good Pakistanis. Though Islamiat is taught as a compulsory subject in all classes, the services of a qualified Qari have been obtained to give Quranic lessons and teach Qiraat. The morning assembly opens with the recitation of Holy Quran followed by English/Urdu translation. Topics pertaining to Islamic values with reference to character/personality development are addressed and discussed with children frequently.

      ART & CRAFT

      All children use art as a means of exploring and coming to terms with their world. It acts as a vehicle for expressing ideas and solving problems, encourages aesthetic development and poses intellectual demands on children. Children are encouraged to explore a variety of materials and craft skills and the value placed on children’s artwork may be seen in the care with which it is displayed around the school.

      PHYSICAL EDUCATION & GAMES

      The sport curriculum units include stretching, running, basic movements and games. Students participate in skill building games focusing on developing team building, learning individual strengths and areas for development, self-discipline, coordination, balance, endurance, sportsmanship, overall fitness and skill building for specific sports.

      Students are introduced to a variety of games and exercise, throwing and catching, relay races, obstacle courses and drills. They also learn the fundamentals of football, basketball, volley ball, badminton, table tennis, snooker, chess, carom board and scrabble.

      Physical Skills Development

      • Coordination of fine motor and gross movements
      • Balance and exactness of movement
      • Sensory awareness
      • Increase fitness level
      • Self-discipline
      • Sportsmanship
      • Skill building for specific sports
      • Physically strong

      L.F.P.C.S Cambridge O’Level

      Cambridge O Level is an internationally recognized qualification equivalent to IGCSE and the UK GCSE. Cambridge O Level provides learners with excellent preparation for academic progression to Cambridge Advanced as well as other progression routes. Cambridge O Level is designed for an international audience. It is sensitive to the needs of different countries and for learners whose first language may not be English. This is acknowledged during the assessment process.

      O Level Curriculum

      In L.F.P.C.S we offer Cambridge curriculum.

      The Cambridge O Level curriculum enables teaching to be placed in a localized context, making it relevant wherever you teach it. The Cambridge O Level curriculum emphasizes broad and balanced study across a wide range of subjects. It develops learners' skills in creative thinking, enquiry and problem solving and is structured so they build practical skills and theoretical knowledge. Cambridge O Level develops learner knowledge, understanding and skills in:

      • Subject content
      • Applying knowledge and understanding to familiar and new situations
      • Intellectual enquiry
      • Flexibility and responsiveness to change
      • Working and communicating in English
      • Influencing outcomes
      • Cultural awareness.

      Subjects:

      In L.F.P.C.S we follow the guidelines provided by the UCIE which provide a wide range of teaching support and resource materials for each Cambridge O Level subject. We offer these subjects:

      • Urdu- Second Language 3248
      • Physics 5054
      • Islamiyat 2058
      • Biology 5090
      • Pakistan Studies 2059
      • Chemistry 5070
      • English Language 1123
      • Computer Studies 7010
      • Mathematics ‘D’ 4024
      • Principles of Accounts 7110
      • Business Studies 7115
      • Commence 7100

      Qualifications:

      Assessment takes place at the end of the course and includes written and practical examinations. This gives learners a variety of ways to show their knowledge and skills Grades are bench marked using six internationally recognized grades, from A* to E, which have clear guidelines to explain the standard of achievement.

      Cambridge O Level examination series occur twice a year, in June and November. Results are issued in August and January.

      Past papers with mark schemes for each subject are available for the students to download, along with examiner reports from previous exam sessions, and specimen papers.

      Visit this website for Cambridge O Level Curriculum: www.cie.org.uk